The test to chose depends on properties of your predictor variable(s) as well:
No predictor variables, go to One sample tests.
Continuous predictor variable(s), go to Regression.
Only categorical predictor variable(s), go to
Two sample tests, or ANOVA.
Both continuous and categorical predictor variables, go to
ANCOVA.
You have clustered data where the factor representing clusters is considered to be a random effects variable
(e.g. repeated measurements, block designs, splitplot designs, factorial designs, longitudinal data, line transects, etc.) go to
Linear mixedeffects models.

If you have a response variable with count data, or the response variable represents frequencies of different categories, go to
Log linear models and frequency tables.
