** Introduction to Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions**

by L.P. Csernai

(John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1994) ISBN 0 471 93420 8

310 pages, 11 chapters (Norwegian Library Record - Bibsys) . . . Click on the icon above --> Full Text, PDF -->

Below you will find the Preface of the book, its Table of contents, an ERRATUM to the printed book (in PostScript), as well as lecturing TRANSPARENCIES chapter by chapter, in Postscript format (to view for those with fast connections) and also in LaTeX format (to fetch and print it locally for distant viewers with slower connections).

This book is based on my courses given at the University of Minnesota, Michigan State University and University of Bergen between 1985 and 1992. It is written for advanced undergraduates, or beginning graduate students in physics both for experimentalists and theorists. The book contains more material than necessary for a one semester course to allow for some selection.

The purpose of the book is to give a general introduction to all beginners in the field of high energy heavy ion physics. It tries to cover a wide range of subjects from intermediate to ultra-relativistic energies, so that it provides an introductory overview of heavy ion physics, in order to enable the reader to understand and communicate with researchers of neighbouring or related fields.

Some familiarity with basic nuclear physics, statistical physics and special relativity is assumed. The book is essentially based on a simple introduction to relativistic kinetic theory, with ample examples from the field of heavy ion physics. It introduces the basic variables used in the field. Then collective macroscopic features of the dense and high temperature matter is discussed. Collective fluid dynamical approaches are introduced in a greater detail, and simple (frequently analytically solvable) models are presented. The properties of the nuclear Equation of State are discussed at an introductory level, mentioning some results from the recent years.

The connections between the collective dynamical descriptions and the experimentally measurable quantities are shown, and the mass and energy scaling of data is used to discuss the observability of dissipative properties of the high energy matter. Microscopic an inherently nonequilibrium descriptions are discussed only briefly.

Recent advances in the search for the Quark Gluon plasma are discussed in an extended chapter. Finally a few interesting connections to astrophysics are mentioned.

The book containes assignments with solutions of a wide range of different difficulties. The excercises are important, because some basic information is introduced via the excercises only.

The sections indicated by (*) are recommended for additional reading, and should not be included necessarily in a regular course. The presentation of the subject in the indicated sections is concise, thus the study of the original literature is advised to those who are interested in the subject particularly and in detail.

Laszlo P. Csernai

November, 1992

** ERRATUM** in
Postscript (104 kB). The ERRATUM includes not only usual misprints but
corrections to some formulae and problem solutions, so it is important to
download. Revised on Aug. 1, 2002. Please if you observed other
misprints which are not included
yet in the ERRATUM, notify me by E-mail to
csernai@ift.uib.no

**
CHAPTER** ** Preface**

** CHAPTER** 1 ** Basic Phenomenology
of Heavy Ion Collisions**

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** Section** 1.1 Introduction ** 1.1.1 The Quark Gluon
Plasma ** 1.1.2 The nuclear Equation of State ** 1.1.3 New collective
phenomena ** 1.1.4 Particle production

** Section** 1.2 Energy
domains of heavy ion physics ** 1.2.1 Intermediate energy reactions **
1.2.2 Relativistic heavy ion reactions ** 1.2.3 Ultra-relativistic heavy
ion reactions ++ Stopping region ++ Transparent region

**
Section** 1.3 Heavy ion experiments ** 1.3.1 Acceptance ** 1.3.2 Event
selection ++ Event trigger ++ Selection trigger ** 1.3.3 Physical event
tape ** 1.3.4 Detector filters ** 1.3.5 Outline

** Section** 1.4
General features of heavy ion physics

** Section** 1.5 Connections
to other fields of physics ** 1.5.1 Nuclear physics ** 1.5.2 Particle
physics ** 1.5.3 Statistical physics ** 1.5.4 Relativistic fluid dynamics
** 1.5.5 Astrophysics

** Section** 1.6 Why a theoretical treatment
is important?

** Section** 1.7 Outline of the book

**
Section** 1.8 Assignment 1 ** 1.8.1 Solutions to Assignment 1

**
Section** References

** CHAPTER** 2 ** Introduction to
Relativistic Kinetic Theory**

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** Section** 2.1 Basic definitions of microscopic
quantities ** 2.1.1 Phase-space variables ** 2.1.2 Properties of the
rapidity ** 2.1.3 Some typical rapidities

** Section** 2.2 Basic
definitions of macroscopic quantities

** Section** 2.3
Energy-momentum tensor ++ Hydrodynamic flow ** 2.3.1 Local Rest frame:
(LR) ++ Eckart's Definition ++ Landau's definition ** 2.3.2 Other
macroscopic quantities -- Special cases - Eckart's definition - Landau's
definition ** 2.3.3 Decomposition of the energy-momentum tensor -- Special
cases

** Section** 2.4 J "F u ttner distribution ** 2.4.1
Normalization ** 2.4.2 Transformation properties of f(x,p). ++ In the
configuration space ++ In the momentum space:

** Section** 2.5
Mixtures

** Section** 2.6 Assignment 2 ** 2.6.1 Solutions to
Assignment 2

** Section** References

** CHAPTER** 3 **
Relativistic Boltzmann Transport Equation**

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** Section** 3.1 Particle conservation

**
Section** 3.2 Collisions

** Section** 3.3 Non-relativistic limit

** Section** 3.4 An example for the solution

** Section** 3.5 Relativistic Boltzmann equation for mixtures

** Section** 3.6 Conservation laws
** 3.6.1 Conservation of particle number
** 3.6.2 Conservation of charge
** 3.6.3 Conservation of energy and momentum

** Section** 3.7 Boltzmann H-theorem
-- Consequence:

** Section** 3.8 Equilibrium distribution function

** Section** 3.9 Zeroth order approximation
-- Assumption:

** Section** 3.10 Assignment 3
** 3.10.1 Solutions to Assignment 3

** Section** References

** CHAPTER** 4 ** Equation of State**

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(Additions are taken from: Phase coexistence in finite quark-gluon plasma,
L.P. Csernai and Z. Neda, *Phys. Lett.* **B337** (1994) 25.)

** Section** 4.1 Intermediate Energy EOS
** 4.1.1 Bulk nuclear matter
++ Nuclear compressibility
++ Thermodynamical variables
++ A simplified Equation of State
++ Phase coexistence between liquid and gas phases
++ Critical exponents
++ Fragment mass distributions
++ Law of Mass Action
** 4.1.2 Finite systems and fragment abundances
++ Phase transition in finite systems
++ Droplet and bubble formation

** Section** 4.2 The Nuclear EOS and Quark Gluon Plasma
** 4.2.1 Hadronic Equation of State
++ Compressional part of the nuclear EOS
** 4.2.2 QGP Equation of State
++ Phase mixture
** 4.2.3 QGP phase transition and nuclear compressibility
** 4.2.4 Dependence of phase transition on the nuclear EOS

** Section** 4.3 EOS from microscopic theory
** 4.3.1 Momentum dependent interaction
** 4.3.2 Momentum distribution
** 4.3.3 The partition function

** Section** 4.4 Assignment 4
** 4.4.1 Solutions to Assignment 4

** Section** References

** CHAPTER** 5 ** Relativistic Fluid Dynamics**

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** Section** 5.1 Energy domains, stopping power
** 5.1.1 Stopping energy region
** 5.1.2 Transparent reactions, mid rapidity region
** 5.1.3 Transparent reactions, fragmentation region

** Section** 5.2 Perfect fluid dynamics

** Section** 5.3 Numerical solutions
** 5.3.1 Equation of state
** 5.3.2 Flow characteristics from numerical solutions
- In the Eulerian fluid dynamics
- Physically
** 5.3.3 Conclusions

** Section** 5.4 Numerical methods
** 5.4.1 The Particle in Cell (PIC) method
** 5.4.2 The Flux Corrected Transport algorithm (FCT)

** Section** 5.5 Simple analytic solutions --- Shock waves
** 5.5.1 Taub adiabat for finite particle densities
-- 1 Parallel projection.
-- 2 Orthogonal projection.
** 5.5.2 Relativistic detonations
-- Minimum energy to reach a new phase:
** 5.5.3 Detonations to QGP
** 5.5.4 Detonations in baryon free plasma
** 5.5.5 Deflagrations from QGP (*)

** Section** 5.6 Assignment 5
** 5.6.1 Solutions to Assignment 5

** Section** References

** CHAPTER** 6 ** Simple models**

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** Section** 6.1 Applicability of simple models
-- Spherical models:
-- Landau model:
-- Bjorken model:

** Section** 6.2 The Bjorken model
** 6.2.1 Entropy conservation
** 6.2.2 Multiplicity estimate in ultra-relativistic collisions
** 6.2.3 Inclusion of phase transition in the Bjorken model (*)
** 6.2.4 Baryon recoil in the Bjorken model (*)

** Section** 6.3 Spherical expansion
** 6.3.1 Fireball model
** 6.3.2 Blast-wave model
++ Basic assumptions of the Blast Wave model
** 6.3.3 An approximate spherical solution

** Section** 6.4 The Landau model
** 6.4.1 Physical assumptions
** 6.4.2 Quasi-analytic solution
** 6.4.3 Numerical solution

** Section** 6.5 Assignment 6
** 6.5.1 Solutions to Assignment 6

** Section** References

** CHAPTER** 7 ** Measurables**

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** Section** 7.1 The freeze out process
** 7.1.1 Formal treatment of the freeze out

** Section** 7.2 Baryon measurables
** 7.2.1 Rapidity distribution
** 7.2.2 Transverse Momentum Spectra
** 7.2.3 Collective Sidewards Flow
** 7.2.4 Average Transverse Momentum

** Section** 7.3 Pion Measurables
-- Rapidity Distribution:
-- Transverse Momentum Spectrum
-- Collective Sidewards Flow
-- Average Transverse Momentum

** Section** 7.4 Calculation of cross sections
** 7.4.1 Inclusive and exclusive cross sections
** 7.4.2 Double and triple differential cross sections
** 7.4.3 Boosting thermal distributions
** 7.4.4 Spherical expansion

** Section** 7.5 Results of three dimensional calculations
** 7.5.1 Fragment emission at the end of the flow

** Section** 7.6 Global flow analysis
** 7.6.1 Global flow analysis in fluid dynamics
** 7.6.2 Decomposition of the global flow tensor

** Section** 7.7 Transverse Flow Analysis
** 7.7.1 Determination of the reaction plane (A)
++ Test of the reaction plane
** 7.7.2 Self correlations (B)

** Section** 7.8 Assignment 7
** 7.8.1 Solutions to Assignment 7

** Section** References

** CHAPTER** 8 ** Scaling of the hydrodynamical model**

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** Section** 8.1 Similarity in classical fluid dynamics
** 8.1.1 Application to heavy ion collisions

** Section** 8.2 Scaling properties of cross sections

** Section** 8.3 Scaling properties of the transverse flow
** 8.3.1 Global flow tensor
** 8.3.2 Transverse Momentum Analysis
** 8.3.3 Fragment flow and scaling
** 8.3.4 Fragment flow - mass dependence (*)

** Section** 8.4 Scaling violations
** 8.4.1 Scaling violation in transverse flow
** 8.4.2 Disappearance of the transverse flow

** Section** 8.5 Assignment 8
** 8.5.1 Solutions to Assignment 8

** Section** References

** CHAPTER** 9 ** Direct Solutions of Kinetic Theory**

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-- The Chapman-Enskog method:

** Section** 9.1 Viscous Fluid Dynamics
** 9.1.1 Entropy production
** 9.1.2 Shock front profiles

** Section** 9.2 Multi Component Fluid Dynamics

** Section** 9.3 Solutions on microscopic level
** 9.3.1 Intranuclear cascade models
** 9.3.2 Mean field models: BUU - VUU - BN - LV
** 9.3.3 Models of Molecular Dynamics

** Section** 9.4 Assignment 9
** 9.4.1 Solution to Assignment 9

** Section** References

** CHAPTER** 10 ** Search for Quark Gluon Plasma**

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** Section** 10.1 Introduction
** 10.1.1 Theoretical expectations
-- QCD Predictions
++ Global Characteristics of the Collision
-- Energy density:
-- Baryon density:
-- Freeze-out volume:
** 10.1.2 Experimental facilities

** Section** 10.2 Quarks and gluons

** Section** 10.3 Lattice QCD
-- Pure gluon theory: (N-f =0)
-- Four degenerate flavors:
-- N-f = 2 or 2 + 1 :
** 10.3.1 The lattice formalism
** 10.3.2 The order of the phase transition
-- Pure gluon matter:
-- Calculations with dynamical quarks:
-- Finite baryon chemical potential:
** 10.3.3 Critical temperature
** 10.3.4 The Equation of State
** 10.3.5 Screening lengths
** 10.3.6 Summary of present results

** Section** 10.4 Surface tension, viscosity and nucleation

** Section** 10.5 Nuclear stopping power
** 10.5.1 Proton nucleus collisions
** 10.5.2 Heavy ion collisions
-- Expectations for higher energies
** 10.5.3 Stopping in theoretical models
-- String models:

** Section** 10.6 Reaction models
** 10.6.1 Fluid dynamical results
++ Detailed numerical models
** 10.6.2 Microscopic string models
-- Hadron - hadron reactions:
-- Strings:
-- Heavy ion reactions:
++ Monte-Carlo model families:
-- A) Naive string models:
-- B) String models with rescattering:
-- C) String models with string fusion:
-- D) Parton cascade models:
++ Monte-Carlo models and Quark Gluon Plasma

** Section** 10.7 On some suggested signals
++ Collective flow, Pt- spectra, thermodynamic variables
-- Transverse flow
-- The shape of the pion spectra:
** 10.7.1 Strangeness and Anti-baryon enhancement
** 10.7.2 Heavy quark bound states
** 10.7.3 Electromagnetic probes
-- Photons:
-- Di-leptons:
** 10.7.4 Exotic signals

** Section** 10.8 Assignment 10
** 10.8.1 Solution to Assignment 10

** Section** References

** CHAPTER** 11 ** Connections of astrophysics and Heavy Ions**

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** Section** 11.1 Neutron and hybrid stars
** 11.1.1 Pulsars and neutron stars
** 11.1.2 Supernova explosions

** Section** 11.2 Implications on the early universe
** 11.2.1 Strangelets

** Section** References

About this document

Thu Jun 1 16:16:31 MET DST 1995